The Security Council has primary responsibility, under the UN Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and security. Under the Charter, all Member States are obligated to comply with Council decisions. The Security Council is the most important and effective organ of the UN.
It is the executive wing of the UN. The Security Council consists of 15 members. Five of them are permanent members, namely Britain, China, France, Russia and the USA. The ten non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly for a term of two years .
Each member has one vote. Decisions are taken by a majority vote of at least nine members including the five permanent members. Each permanent member has the power to reject or veto a decision. This means a negative vote by any one of the permanent members would lead to a cancellation of the resolution.
The Council is powerless to act if there is such a veto by any permanent member although it may be supported by all other permanent members. The Security Council meets once a month but in the event of an emergency, a meeting may be held whenever required.
Functions of the Security Council:
1)To maintain international peace and security in the world
.2)To investigate international disputes and recommend appropriate methods of settling them.
3)To call on member states to apply economic sanctions against the aggressor and thus to put pressure on the guilty state to stop aggression.
4)The Security Council may take military action against the aggressor, if required.
Introduction About Economic & Social Council-
The Economic and Social Council is the principal body for coordination, policy review, policy dialogue and recommendations on economic, social and environmental issues, as well as implementation of internationally agreed development goals.
The Economic and Social Council consists of 54 members elected by the General Assembly for a three-year term.
The ECOSOC discusses major economic and social issues. It is mainly concerned with the management of the UN’s social, economic, cultural and humanitarian activities.
Functions of Economic & Social Council:
1)To promote economic and social progress.
2)To solve problems relating to health, illiteracy, unemployment, etc.
3)To coordinate the functions of the agencies of the UN like the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the International Labor Organization (ILO), the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations International Children’s Fund (UNICEF),etc.