A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person’s language. A vocabulary, usually developed with age, serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge. Acquiring an extensive vocabulary is one of the largest challenges in learning a second language.

Autocratic Leaders

Directive leaders who prefer to make decisions and solve problems on their own with little input from subordinates.

Coercive Power

Power that is derived from an individual’s ability to threaten negative outcomes.

Conceptual Skills

A manager’s ability to view the organization as a whole, understand how the various parts are interdependent, and assess how the organization relates to its external environment.

Consensual Leaders

Leaders who encourage discussion about issues and then require that all parties involved agree to the final decision.

Consultative Leaders

Leaders who confer with subordinates before making a decision but who retain the final decision-making authority.

Contingency Plans


Plans that identify alternative courses of action for very unusual or crisis situations; typically stipulate the chain of command, standard operating procedures, and communication channels the organization will use during an emergency.


The process of assessing the organization’s progress toward accomplishing its goals; includes monitoring the implementation of a plan and correcting deviations from the plan.

Corporate Culture

The set of attitudes, values, and standards that distinguishes one organization from another.

Decisional Roles

A manager’s activities as an entrepreneur, resource allocator, conflict resolver, or negotiator.

Democratic Leaders

Leaders who solicit input from all members of the group and then allow the members to make the final decision through a vote.


The ability to produce the desired result or good.


Using the least amount of resources to accomplish the organization’s goals.


The process of giving employees increased autonomy and discretion to make decisions, as well as control over the resources needed to implement those decisions.

Expert Power

Power that is derived from an individual’s extensive knowledge in one or more areas.

Free-rein (laissez-faire) Leadership

A leadership style in which the leader turns over all authority and control to subordinates.

Global Management Skills

A manager’s ability to operate in diverse cultural environments.

Human Relations Skills

A manager’s interpersonal skills that are used to accomplish goals through the use of human resources.

Informational Roles

A manager’s activities as an information gatherer, an information disseminator, or a spokesperson for the company.

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